• 19/01/2020 9:30 19

Miliyoni y’ubwoko bw’inyamaswa n’ibimera iri mu nzira yo gucika ku isi

Ibi ni ibyemezwa n’ihuriro ry’abahanga boherejwe na za Guverinoma kugira bigire hamwe uko ibinyabuzima bibayeho. Iri huriro ryiswe Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services( IPBES) rivuga ko urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima rukomeje kwangizwa n’ibikorwa bya muntu k’uburyo mu myaka 50 iri imbere hari amoko y’inyamaswa n’ibimera azaba ari hafi gucika burundu ki isi.

Amoko menshi y'inyamaswa ziba mu mazi zifitiye muntu akamaro ziri gucika
Amoko menshi y’inyamaswa ziba mu mazi zifitiye muntu akamaro ziri gucika

Umuyobozi wa ririya huriro witwa Sir Robert Watson yagize ati: “ Ibimenyetso bifatika dufite twahawe n’abagize  IPBES byerekana ishusho rusange iteye ubwoba y’uko urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima rwugarijwe.”

Avuga ko bimwe mu binyabuzima by’ibanze bituma ibindi bibaho biri kwangirika no kuzimira mu buryo bwihuse.

Yemeza ko ibikorwa bya muntu biri gutuma ubukungu bw’isi, imibereho ya muntu harimo kwihaza mu biribwa n’amazi bigenda byishyira mu kaga.

Sir Watson avuga ko n’ubwo hari igishobora gukorwa, bisaba ko gitangira gukorwa uyu munsi kandi mu nzego zose z’ubuzima.

Ibi ariko bisaba ko hahindurwa uburyo ibintu bikorwamo haba mu ikoranabuhanga, ubukungu, imibereho y’abaturage, n’ibidi.

Watson avuga ko icyo bise ‘transformative change’ kigomba kuba gikomatanyiriza hamwe inkingi nyinshi z’ubuzima bwa muntu hagamijwe kugabanya urwego muntu yangizamo ibidukikije mu ngeri nyinshi.

Ikegeranyo kiswe The IPBES Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services cyatangiye gukorwa n’abahanga guhera muri 2005.

Cyari kigamije kureba uko urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima ruhagaze kuva kiriya gihe.

Cyakozwe n’abahanga 145 baturutse mu bihugu 50, aba bakaba barafashijwe kandi n’inyandiko n’ibitekerezo by’abandi bahanga 310 bo muri Kaminuza zitandukanye no mu nzego z’ubumenyi zitandukanye.

Zimwe mu nyandiko za bariya bahanga ngo zavugaga ingaruka ibikorwa bya muntu bigira ku rusobe rw’ibinyabuzima kandi zikifashisha ingero zishingiye ku bushakashatsi bwa vuba.

Izi nyandiko kandi zasobanuraga uko ibintu bikomeje gutya byazagenda mu myaka 10, 20, 30…iri imbere.

Bivugwa ko abahanga banditse iyi raporo bakoresheje amakuru bakuye ahantu hagera ku 15 000 hamwe hakaba ari mu nzego za Leta, iza Kaminuza ndetse no mu batuye bice byiherereye by’isi( abasangwabutaka).

Prof  Sandra Díaz wo muri Argentina wari mu banditse iriya raporo avuga ko kwica cyangwa kwangiza urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima bisa no kwiyahura uko uko byagenda kose iyo rwangiritse muntu atabasha gupfa kurusana.

Prof. Josef Settele  wo mu Budage na  Prof. Eduardo S. Brondízio wo muri Brazil bavuga ko iyo urebye umuvuduko ibinyabuzima byangirikiraho wibaza aho inyokomuntu igana bikakuyobera.

Raporo bakoze yaberetse ko kuba hari amoko y’inyamaswa n’ibimera agera kuri miliyoni ashobora kuzacika ku isi byerekena akaga muntu agenda yishyiramo.

Bavuga ko iyo usuzumye usanga guhera muri 1900 20% y’indiri z’inyamaswa zituye mu mazi n’imisozi yasenyutse.

40% by’ibi binyabuzima biba mu mazi ni ukuvuga amafi, utunyamasyo… naho 33% by’utumera duto tuyungurura umwuka mwinshi ibinyabuzima bihumeke twitwa recifs coraliens byarangiritse..

Inyamabere ziba mu mazi zigera zirenge ¾ byugarijwe no gucika ku isi.

Ku byerekeye inigwahabiri(insects) zizwiho uruhare runini mu gutuma ibimera byororoka ngo izigera ku 10% zamaze gupfa muri izi kandi izibasiwe cyane ni inzuki.

Amoko 680 y’inyamaswa zifite uruti rw’umugongo( vertebles) yamaze gucika ku isi, akaba yaratangiye gucika mu kinyejana cya 16 nyuma ya Yesu Kristu.

Ubwoko bw’inyamaswa zingana na 9% zari mu zirorwa n’abantu baraziriye zicika ku isi, ubu hugarijwe ubugera ku 1000.

 Ibyakorwa ngo ibinyabuzima bitabarwe:

Abahanga bavuga ko hagomba gukorwa ibintu bitanu bikurikira:

-Guhindura uko abantu bakoresha ubutaka n’inyanja,

Kkwirinda kurya ibinyabuzima biribwa bitarakura neza,

– Guhangana n’ihinduka ry’ikirere,

-Kurwana ihumana ry’ikirere no

– Gufata ingamba zo guhangana n’utunyamaswa turimo inigwahabiri zidasanzwe tujya tuvuka ahantu hatandukanye ku nguni z’isi.

Iriya raporo kandi yerekana ko ibyuka bihumanya ikirere byikubye kabiri guhera muri 1980, bikaba byarazamuye ubushyuhe bungana na  degre Celsius 0.7

Ubu bushyuhe bwatumye imikorere y’imiyaga yo mu kirere ihinduka, butuma inyanja zishyuha amazi yazo arazamuka kandi butuma ubutayu bwaguka mu bice byinshi ku isi.

Abahanga bavuga ko bakurikije uko ibintu bihagaze ubu, imiterere mibi y’ibinyabuzima izadindiza ubukungu ku kigero cya 80% mu myaka iri imbere ugereranyije n’uko bwari buteganyijwe mu ntego z’iterambere rirambye, SDGs.

Izi ntego kandi zirebana cyane no kugabanya ubukene, inzara, ubuzima kuri bose, amazi meza kuri bose, imijyi idaheza kandi yuzuye ibidukikije, gusukura no kubungabunaga inyanja n’ubutaka n’ibindi.

Izo ntego z'iterambere rirambye ziri mu tunyenyeri zose zizagerwaho n'ingaruka zo kwangirika kw'urusobe rw'ibinyabuzima
Izo ntego z’iterambere rirambye ziri mu tunyenyeri zose zizagerwaho n’ingaruka zo kwangirika kw’urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima

Prof. Brondízio avuga ko iyo urebye ingingo yo kubungabunga urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima usanga ko niramuka itabungabunzwe hari ibice byinshi bigize ziriya ntego bizadindira.

Ibindi bintu bikomeye iriya raporo yerekanya harimo ko:

-3/4 by’ibidukikije biri ku butaka bwumutse ndetse na 66% by’ibidukikije biba mu mazi byangijwe cyane n’ibikorwa bya muntu. Ikiza ngo ni uko ibi binyabuzima bitangijwe cyane mu bice by’abantu bakibaho bya gakondo.

-igice kirenga ¾ by’ubutaka bwose bw’isi  ndetse na 75% by’ibishanga n’imigezi byahinduwe urwuri ahandi harahingwa

-Guhera muri 1970 agaciro k’ibikomoka ku buhinzi kazamutseho byibura 300% k’uburyo abantu benshi ku isi batunzwe n’ibiva mu butaka.

-Gutera no gusarura amashyamba bashaka imbaho byatumye ku isi hatimwa imbaho zipima toni miliyari 60 ibi bikaba byariyongereye guhera 1980.

-Isuri yatumye umusaruro mu buhinzi ku isi ugabanuka ku kigero cya 23% ni ukuvuga igihombo cya miliyari$ 577kandi ngo kuba inigwahabiri zirimo inzuki zipfa cyane bituma abantu bari hagati ya miliyoni 100 na 300 bugarizwa no kuteza, ibi bikiyongeraho ibiza biterwa n’imiyaga ikomeye, imyuzure n’ibindi.

-Muri 2015, 33% by’amafi yari yararobwe adakuze

-Abatuye imijyi ku isi bikubye inshuro zirenga ebyiri guhera 1992.

-Guhera muri 1980 kugeza uyu mwaka ngo mu Nyanja n’ahandi ku isi hamenwe toni ziri hagati 300 na 400 z’ibinyabutabire bidapfa kubora( heavy metals) n’ibindi binyabutabire birimo za plastic zitabora

-Amafumbire mva ruganda yakoreshejwe nabi yica ubutaka buturiye ibiyaga n’inyanja bifite ubuso bwa 245,000 km2 ni ukuvuga ubuso buruta ubw’u Bwongereza.

– Abahanga basanze ibinyabuzima bizakomeza kwangirika kugeza muri 2050. Ngo niyo habaho impinduka zigamije iterambere rirambye ntabyo ari ibintu byakoroha kuko urwego ibinyabuzima byangiritseho ruhanitse.

Umunyamabanga nshingwabikorwa w’iri huriro witwa Dr Anne Larigauderie ashima abahanga bose bagize uruhare mu kwandika iriya raporo izifashishwa mu guha abanyapolitiki umurongo wabafasha kugira icyo bakora niyo cyaba gito ariko kikaba cyatabara muntu.

Inzuki ziri mu bwoko bw'inigwahabiri zifite akamaro kurusha izindi ku isi. Ziri mu ziri gucika
Inzuki ziri mu bwoko bw’inigwahabiri zifite akamaro kurusha izindi ku isi. Ziri mu ziri gucika

Jean Pierre NIZEYIMANA

UMUSEKE.RW

1 Igitekerezo

  • Birababaje kubona turimo kwangiza Isi .Iyi si,niyo NZU (House) Imana yaduhaye ngo tujye tuyifata neza,ituwe n’abantu barenga 8 Billions/Milliards.Nkuko Statistics zibyerekana,abantu babaye ku isi kugeza ubu,barenga gato 100 Billions/Milliards.Imana yaduhaye buri kintu cyose ngo tubeho: Umwuka,Ibiryo,Amazi,Ubutaka,Imvura,Izuba,etc…Ndetse iduha n’Indabyo,Parks,Abana,etc.., mu rwego rwo kugirango twishime.Nta kindi yadusabye uretse KUYUMVIRA no gufata neza Isi.
    Ariko abantu barimo kwangiza isi ku buryo buteye ubwoba.Urugero,Ishyamba rinini kurusha ayandi ku isi,ryitwa Amazone,barigeze kure baryangiza.Barimo kwangiza Inyanja,Inzuzi,Imigezi hamwe n’Ikirere (Water and Air Pollution).Kubera ko bangije cyane ikirere,niyo mpamvu mubona Climate Change itera IBIZA (Natural Disasters): Hurricanes,Floods,Cyclones,Tsunamis,Wild fires,Ubushyuhe n’Ubukonje bikabije kurusha kera,etc…Abahanga bavuga ko niba ibihugu bidahagaritse kohereza imyotsi mu kirere,nta kabuza imperuka iri hafi kubera Pollution.Igishimishije nuko Bible ivuga ko aho kugirango abantu bangize Isi yiremeye,izabatanga ikure mu isi abantu bose bangiza isi,hamwe n’abandi bose bakora ibyo itubuza.Ibyo bizaba ku munsi w’imperuka ugomba kuba uri utari kure kubera izo mpamvu zavuzwe.

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