• 18/01/2020 1:12 17

Ibinyabutabire bikoze ukwezi

Taliki 20, Nyakanga, 1969 nibwo abagabo ba mbere babiri bo muri USA bakandagiye ku kwezi. Abo ni Neil Armstrong na Buzz Aldrin. Mu masaha ari hagati y’abiri n’atatu bahamaze, bafashe bimwe mu byo bahasanze barimo amabuye, umukungugu n’ibindi babizana muri za Laboratoire za NASA ngo abahanga mu binyabutabire bazige ibikoze ukwezi.

Ukwezi ni ikiyega(moving object) kigenda kigaragiye isi.

Izindi ngendo zakomeje gukorerwa ku kwezi, abahanga bakomeza kuzana ku isi bimwe mu bigize ukwezi, ubu hakaba ku isi hari ibinyabutabire bipima ibilo 300 byavanywe ku kwezi.

Kuva icyo gihe kugeza ubu abahanga mu butabire(chemistry) bakomeje kwiga uko ibinyabutabire bikoze ukwezi biteye n’uko bikorana hagati yabyo.

Incamake y’uko ubuhanga ku miterere y’ukwezi bwagiye bukura:

Umuntu wa mbere wavuze mu buryo bwa gihanga imiterere y’ukwezi ni Galileo Galilei mu gitabo yasohoye mu 1610.

Uyu mugabo wari ugeze mu zabukuru yanditse ko akorikije amashusho yahabwaga n’icyuma kireba mu kirere yasanze ukwezi gufite ibibaya, imisozi n’ibindi.

Yemeraga ko ukwezi guteye nk’uko isi yacu iteye uretse ko bitandukanira ku butumburuke ndetse no guhehera kw’ikirere kuko ku isi hagwa imvura igizwe n’amazi( H2O)

Igitekerezo cya Galilei cyamaganiwe kure n’abahanga muri Tewolojiya naFilozofiya bemeraga igitekezo cy’umuhanga muri Filozofi ukomeye wabayeho kera cyane witwaga Aristote( uyu yabaye n’umwarimu w’umwami w’abami w’Ubugereki Alexandre le Grand).

Aristote we yemezaga ko imibumbe yose iri mu kirere ifite k’uburyo bw’uruziga rudafite ahantu barambitse na hamwe.

Mu mpera z’Ikinyejana cya 17 abahanga hafi ya bose mu Burayi bemeraga ko igitekerezo cya Galilei cy’uko ukwezi guteye nk’isi ari ukuri, ko gufite ibisiza, imisozi, ibibaya, ibirunga n’ibindi.

Mu gitabo yanditse muri 1687 yise Principia Mathematica Isaac Newton yavuze ko ireme bwite ry’ukwezi( densite) rituma ingufu rukuruzi z’isi zibasha kugukurura kukaguma aho guherereye kandi ntikwegere isi cyane.

Mu kinyejana cya 19 abahanga mu bugenge bashoboye gupima neza ubunini bw’ukwezi ariko ntibashobora kumenya ibigukoze, ibinyabutabire bikoze ubutaka n’ikirere by’ukwezi.

N’ubwo muri iki kinyejana bashoboye gupima uko ubushyuhe bwo mu zuba bukorwa n’uko bugenda busimburana ariko ntibamenye uko ukwezi guteye.

Inyandiko z’abahanga zivuga ko ukwezi kwabayeho bitewe n’uko isi yagonganye n’undi mubumbe, ikiyomotseho kikaba ukwezi.

Bizwi ko ukwezi kutaka ahubwo kumurikira Isi binyuze mu kwakira no gukwirakwiza urumuri ruturuka ku izuba.
Mu kinyejana cyakurikiyeho( icya 20) inganda zikomeye zikora iby’ikoranabuhanga zakoze ibyuma bireba kure bibasha gufasha abashakashatsi mu bumenyi bw’ikirere kumenya neza uko ukwezi guteye, ariko hasigara impaka zo kumenya niba hariyo ibirunga.

Izi mpaka zagaragaye hagati y’umunyabutabire witwa Harold Urey n’umuhanga mu by’isanzure witwa Gerard KuIzi mpaka z’urudaca ziri mu byatumye abantu batangira kumva ko ari ngombwa kuzajyayo kugira ngo birebere n’amaso uko hameze bave mu magambo.
Muri 1959 nibwo icyogajuru cya mbere cy’Abarusiya cyagezeyo. Iki cyogajuru kiswe Luna

Abahanga barimo bakusanyije bimwe mu byo bahabonye birimo imiterere y’ubutaka, kureba niba nta mitingito yigeze kuhaba. Nyuma hakurikiyeho ikindi cyogajuru cy’Abarusiya kiswe Luna 10. Icyo gihe abahanga bakusanyije ikinyabutabire bita basalt iri rikaba ari ibuye rikomoka ku iruka ry’ibirunga.

Muri 1967 Leta zunzwe ubumwe z’Amerika zohereje icyogajuru kiswe Surveyor 5  nacyo gikusanya basalt nyinshi.
Ubundi basalt ntabwo ari ibuye ukwaryo ahubwo ni uruhurirane ry’ibyo bita silicates ariko birutanwa mu byinshi. Hagati ya1969 na 1972 ingendo z’ibyogajuru bise Apollo byakusanyije basalt zipima ibiro 381.

Muri 1983 hari umuhanga wo muri New Zealand witwa Brian Mason wakoraga mu kigo cy’ubushakashatsi kiri Washington kitwa Smithsonian Institute wavumbuye ubundi bwoko bw’amabuye agize ukwezi.

Ayo yitwa  Iron-Manganese.

Gusesengura ibinyabutabire bigize ukwezi si akazi koroshye kubera ko gukozwe n’ibintu byinshi byiteranyije.

Mu buryo butandukanye n’uko bimeze ku miterere y’Isi, ukwezi ntikugira igice kirimo rukuruzi( magnetosphere) ituma umwuka wa hydrogen utangizwa n’imirasire izanwa n’izuba.

Ibi bituma ibyinshi mu bikugize bigenda byangizwa n’ubukana bw’imirasire y’izuba.

Ikindi gituma imiterere y’ukwezi itandukana cyane n’iyi si ni uko guhora kwikubitwaho n’ibibuye biva ku yindi mibumbe, bigatuma uko iteye bihora bihindagurika.

Igice kinini kigize ubutaka bw’ukwezi kimeze nk’ifu ivanze mo ibikomoka ku mabuye byagiye bishanyaguzwa no kwikubitwaho n’ibibuye biva mu isanzure, hakiyongeraho n’ubushyuhe butangwa n’izuba.Ibipimo bitangwa na za laboratwari bivuga ko 45% by’ibigize igice kigaragara cy’ukwezi ari umwuka wa Oxygen naho 21% bikaba bigizwe na silicon( Si) ivanze na aluminium(Al), Calcium(Ca), Iron( Fe), na Titanium( Ti).

Ubushakashatsi ku kwezi buracyakomeje. Muri Gashyantare, 2019 Abashinwa babaye aba mbere mu kugeza icyogajuru mu gace kitaruye cyane k’ukwezi. Ni agace bavuga ko karimo ibirunga byinshi. Icyogajuru cyabo bakise Chang’e 4.

Perezida wa USA Donald Trump aherutse kuvuga ko igihugu cye kigomba kongera ingufu mu bushakashatsi gikora ku kwezi.

Imiterere y’ubutaka bwo ku kwezi ishushe nk’iyo ku isi

Chemistry World

Jean Pierre NIZEYIMANA

UMUSEKE.RW

Subiza

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