• 15/12/2019 1:12 44

Amateka akomeje kutwigisha ko muntu atigira ku mateka

Ikinyejana cya makumyabiri cyaranzwe n’intambara mu bice hafi ya byose by’iyi isi dutuyemo; Izo ntambara zasize iheruheru abatuye isi. Abantu barishwe, abagore bafatwa ku ngufu, abana baba impfubyi, bamwe bavuka mu buryo butera agahinda ababibarutse bitewe n’uburyo bavutsemo. Abasaga miliyoni 187 bahasize ubuzima. Kuva icyo gihe kugeza na n’ubu byagorana kubona isi imaze nk’umwaka nta harangwa intambara.

Mu 1945, ibihugu byari bimaze gutsinda intambara ya kabiri y’isi yose byashinze umuryango w’abibumbye (United Nation). Intego nyamukuru y’uwo muryango yari ukugarura amahoro ku isi ndetse no kurinda ko hari amarorerwa yakongera kuba nk’ayari amaze kuba. Ibintu bisa nk’ibyananiranye kugeza ubu.

Abasesenguzi bakunze kumvikana bavuga ko Umuryango w’abibumbye ntacyo ukora ngo urinde icyateza intambara ku isi ahubwo bakavuga ko icyo bashoboye ari ukugerageza kugarura amahoro aho yabuze mu mwanya wo gukora icyatuma ayo mahoro atabura.

Ikinyejana cya makumyabiri kandi cyasize abatuye isi by’umwihariko abatuye mu bihugu by’iburayi basobanukiwe neza ko “Intambara isenya aho kubaka”. Igisekeje ariko ni uko na nyuma yaho intambara zakomeje kwibasira ibihugu byinshi, cyane cyane ibihugu bya Afurika n’ibihugu byo mu burasirazuba bwo hagati (Middle East).

Mu  mashuri yose yo ku isi, mu masomo biga ntihaburamo kwiga isomo ry’amateka, n’ibintu bimaze igihe kirekire. Muri iryo somo ntibasiba kwigishwa intambara zagiye zibaho mu bice bitandukanye by’isi; bigishwa icyateye intambara, ingaruka zasigiye abatuye isi n’ibindi. Ibintu byagakwiye gutuma buri wese asobanukirwa ububi bw’intambara agaharanira kuzirinda (cyane cyane ko umubare munini w’abategetsi bakomeye baba barakurikiye isomo ry’amateka) mu buryo bwose bushoboka. Ikibabaje…

Amateka akomeje kutwigisha ko muntu atigira ku mateka.

Ku muntu wese wize amateka ntabwo yabuze guhura n’ikibazo kimubaza giti “Ni akahe kamaro ko kwiga amateka?” Njyewe iteka ryose nasubizaga mvuga ko  akamaro ko kwiga amateka ari ukudafasha kumenya ahahise kugira ngo dusobanukirwe iby’iki gihe, mu rwego rwo gutegura  ejo ahazaza heza.

Mu ntambara zagiye zibaho mu bihe bitandukanye, usanga kenshi zaragiye ziterwa n’ibintu bimwe byagendaga byisubiramo.

Mu kinyejana cya makumyabiri habarurwa intambara zisaga 31  (utabariyemo intambara zabaye ku mugabane wa Afurika zo guharanira ubwigenge), zimwe muri izo ntambara ni nk’intambara ya mbere n’iya kabiri z’isi yose, intambara yahuje za Koreya zombi, Jenoside yakorewe abayahudi (holocaust), jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ndetse n’izindi. Ni intambara zasize abarenga  miliyoni 185 bahasize ubuzima [Abangana n’10% byabari batuye isi mu 1913].

Ubwo intambara ya mbere y’isi yose yarangiraga hashinzwe umuryango wiswe “ League of Nation ”; intego nyamukuru y’uwo muryango kwari ukugarura amahoro no gukora igishoboka cyose ngo ntihongere kubaho indi ntambara gusa byarangiye utsinzwe.

Nyuma  yaho Hitler na bagenzi be birengagije akaga intambara ya mbere y’isi yose yateye bashoza iya kabiri yasize Abayapani bahuye n’akaga batazibagirwa. Aho intambara ya kabiri y’isi yose irangiriye benshi ntabwo bari bazi ko hari igihugu kizongera gupfa kwishora mu ntambara bitewe n’ibyo bari bamaze kwiboneshereza n’amaso yabo. Gusa ntihaciye kabiri intambara (intambara y’ubutita, intambara hagati ya Koreya zombi, …) ziba zirarose ikizitera n’ubundi cyari cya kindi.

Intambara zahitanye imbaga ariko nta somo zasize
Intambara zahitanye imbaga ariko nta somo zasize

Ku butegetsi bwa Hitler, yakoreye jenoside Abayahudi yasize hagati ya miliyoni esheshatu (6) zihasize ubuzima, igikorwa cyasize abatuye isi babonye ko nta kiza  ivangura ryazana.

Nyuma yaho hagiye haba za jenoside zitandukanye mu bice by’isi kugeza bigeze no mu rw’imisozi igihumbi  Abatutsi basaga miliyoni bahasiga ubuzima mu 1994  (nabwo kandi nta kindi cyateye iyo jenoside uretse urwango n’ivangura).

Nyuma yaho ku isi yose hamaganywe ivangura iryo ariryo ryose mu rwego rwo kwirinda ko hari jenoside yakongera kuba. Hamwe amasomo afitanye isano na jenoside yatangiye gutangwa mu rwego rwo kugerageza kwigira ku mateka ariko muntu aracyakomeje kwinangira. Urugero rwa hafi ni uko ubu mu gihugu cya Myanmar abaturage baba Rohindya bakomeje kwicwa bazizwa icyo batagizemo uruhare.

Mu  mpera z’ikinyejana cya makumyabiri gishyira ikinyejana cya makumyabiri na rimwe intambara y’ubutita n’ibisigisigi byayo bisa nk’ibirirangiye, impuguke muri politiki Francis Fukuyama yanditse igitabo yise “The End of History and the Last Man” agaragaza uburyo nyuma y’irangira ry’intambara y’ubutita isi igiye kugendera ku mahame ya demokarasi isi ikarangwa n’amahoro gusa nta n’imyaka icumi yashize Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika itangira intambara yo guhashya iterabwoba nyuma y’ibitero byo kuwa 11 Nzeri 2001. Intambara kugeza na n’ubu zigikomeje.

Muri iki gihe abaturage bo muri Syria bakwiriye imishwaro bitewe n’intambara iri kuba hagati ya leta ya Bashar al Assad n’inyeshyamba zishaka kumukura ku butegetsi. Mu minsi yashize kandi mwese mwibuka intambara zabereye mu bihugu byo mu majyaruguru ya Afurika (Arab spring).

Muri iyi minsi  intambara zose ziri kuba usanga ziterwa ahanini n’imiyobrere mibi iba irangwa muri ibyo bihugu aho  abari ku butegetsi  bakunze kurenza ingohe icyakuye ku butegetsi abo basimbuye ahubwo nabo bakongera kubisubiramo ntacyo bishisha.

Ibintu biha urwaho ibihugu by’ibihangange ku isi  bigateza amakimbirane abyara intambara muri ibyo bihugu mu rwego rwo gushaka kwitwarira umutungo kamere urangwa muri ibyo bihugu nta nkomyi mu gihe abandi bo bamarana. Ubushakashatsi bugaragaza ko kuva ikinyejana cya makumyabiri na rimwe cyatangira nibura buri mwaka ibihumbi by’abantu basiga ubuzima mu ntambara.

Mu  bigaragara mu mpapuro ubona ko Umuryango w’abibumbye (UN) urajwe inshinga no kubona isi itekanye n’ubwo ibyanditse n’ibikorwa bihabanye.

Naho Africa yunze Ubumwe, binyuze muri gahunda yayo y’ikerekezo 2063  (AU Agenda 2063: gahunda yatangijwe kuva mu mwaka wa 2013 ikazageza mu mwaka wa 2063) igena ko mu mwaka wa 2020 nta rusaku rw’imbunda ruzaba rukirangwa ku mugabane w’irabura nkuko bigaragarira mu ntego ya kane(4) igira iti “Afurika irangwamo amahoro n’umutekano”.

Gusa izi ntego zose bigoye kuzigeraho kurusha kubona ingamiya yinjira mu mwenge w’urushinge mu gihe abategetsi cyane cyane abo muri Afurika bacyemera kuba ibikoresho by’ibihugu by’ibihangange; mu gihe imiyoborere yabo ikirangwa n’igitugu, gusimbuza inyugu z’igihugu (National interest) inyungu zabo bwite, kwikubira umutungo w’igihugu, gushyiraho abategetsi bashingiye ku cyene wabo nk’aho igihugu  ari umurage bahawe n’ababyeyi babo, gufata imyanzuro idashingiye ku gushaka kw’abaturage bayobora, kwica no gufunga abo batavuga rumwe nabo ndetse no kubaka inzego z’igihugu zishingiye ku muntu umwe gusa (perezida wa Repubulika), n’ibindi byinshi ntarondora gusa nabihinira mu magambo abiri: “Imiyoborere mibi”  biza ku isonga mu bitera intambara mu bihugu byinshi.

Mu gihe abayobozi bareka gukurikiza bene buriya buryo ngira ngo na bya bihugu by’ibihangange ku isi bishinjwa kwivanga mu miyoborere y’ibyo bihugu bigateza intambara cyangwa imyivumbagatanyo ntaho byamenera.

Nubwo hari benshi bamaze gucengerwa n’uburozi bigoye ko barutswa bameze nka ba bana barwara, kubaha imiti bigasaba kubafata amaboko kugira ngo batiruka. Gusa kugira ngo tubone isi ifite amahoro n’umutekano birasaba umutima wa gitwali tukemera kunywa umuti n’ubwo rwose waba urura bikabije.

Kuko ntekereza ko nta muntu utakwemera gukora cyane uyu munsi avunika kandi anahangayitse ariko  yizeye ko ejo azabona umusaruro mwinshi, mwiza kandi wo mu gihe kirambye uretse ikigwari kimeze nkaba bazungu Martin Luther King yavuze mu gitabo cye “Gukunda bitera imbaraga” bemeraga ko ivangura rikorerwa abirabura ridakwiye ahubwo abantu bakwiye kureshya, ariko bakavuga ko n’ubwo babyemera batyo bikwiye kuzashyirwa mu bikorwa bo baramaze kwitaba Imana.

 

CYUZUZO Aime Christian;

Umunyeshuri muri Kaminuza mu ishami ry’ububanyi n’amahanga (International Relations).

Email: cyuzuzoaimechristian@gmail.com

0 Igitekerezo

  • Urakoze Christian , kudusangiza ibitekerezo byawe ku mateka no kutwereka ko amateka atajya atwigisha , byo iyo urebye nibyo . Gusa nagirango nkunganire kuko nanjye nakunze iyi article , muri kiriya Gitabo cya Fukuyama , thesis ye ntiyakunze kandi nawe ubu yemeye ko muri kiriya gitabo ibyo yabonaga bishobora kuba atari byo byabaye ariko simvuga ko ntacyo kitwigisha, Kubujyanye no kwivanga kwamahanga mu mibyoborere nkeka ko buri gihugu cyose gikina Diplomacy , ahubwo mbona intege nke ziri kubayobozi dushyiraho nuburyo bajyaho ,nkuko wabivuze btorewe nabaturage koko byanyabyo bagakorera inyungu z’abo bayobora ibihugu niyo byakwivanga babikanira yewe nabaturage ntibagire ikibazo ahubwo bagakora biteza imbere muburyo bushoboka ariko nyine uburyo bajyaho nicyo kibazo ariko si muri Afurika gusa , uzacukumbure no mubihugu byateye imbere burya hari abagira uruhare mugushyiraho abaperezida nubwo tubona ari amatora mu maso yacu inyuma haba hari byinshi tutabona. Mu kumenya aho isi igana mubijyanye namateka uzashake igitabo cyitwa Homo sapiens: Abrieif History of human Kind na Homo Deus: “A brief History of Tomorrow ” na 21 lessons for 21 the Century bya “Yaval Noah Harari cyangwa kuri youtube uzumva ibitekerezo kandi nabyo byagira icyo bitwungura kumva aho isi igana, Hari nikindi gitabo cya Jared Diamond cyitwa “Collapse : Why Socities choose to fail or Succeed ” , bizatwereka urujijo isi irimo muri iyi minsi , njye icyo mpora nibaza abanyafurika turi tayari muri izi mpinduka ko wagirango twibereye mubinyejana bya 16 . Urubyiruko bararusinzirije rurirwa mumihanda rubyina aho kugirango babahe ubumenyi bamenye aho isi igana nibibazo urubyiruko nitwe tugomba guhumuka kuko izi mpinduka z’imiyoborere y’isi muri iki gihe nitwe zireba cyane .

  • Kujya kuvuga iby’amateka y’intambara ku isi ugahera mu kinyejana cya 20, ni nko kuvuga umunsi urangiye w’amasaha 24 ugahera saa tanu n’iminota mirongo itanu n’icyenda n’amasegonda mirongo itanu n’icyenda z’ijoro. Uyu musore nakomeze agerageze ntako atagize. Useka impundu z’urushishi abanza kureba imisaya zivuyemo. Ariko se muri bibliotheque ya kaminuza buriya harimo ibitabo bingahe byanditse ku ntambara z’iki gihe avuga? Ibyo atubwiye buriya yabonye ari byo by’ingenzi? Imyubakire y’iyi nyandiko buriya niyo isigaye yigishwa muri kaminuza? Ahaa!!! Naragenze ndabona!!! Ariko azagerageze nibura akorere iyi nkuru ye ubugororangingo ku kintu kimwe gikomeye. Ese jenoside yakorewe abayahudi cyangwa iyakoreye abatutsi, cyangwa n’indi jenoside iyo ari yo yose, nazo ni intambara?

  • Uyu munyeshuli atekereza neza. Umuseke mwakoze kumuha urubuga.Ndabashimiye nawe ndamushimiye.Ariko nk’umuntu wiga muri Kaminuza nizereko yakoze relecture au moins deux fois ya article ye.

    • @Akumiro urakoze gutanga igitekerezo cyawe , nicy freedom of speech bivuga raiko uze kwicara uvuge uti ibyo nanditse nkafata umwanya wanjye byunguye iki abasomyi cyangwa igitekerezo nyamukuru kirimo nikihe , muvandimwe turajya mu isi aho kwicarana nabantu no kubana byimukira kuri za social media , gutanga igitekerezo cyubaka yewe no gutanga critiques bidahejwe nibyo byiza kurenza kugaya umuntu urimo kudufasha kwihugura , kuba yahereye cyera si ikibazo kuko nabandi benshi bakora ubushakashatsi niko bigenda , naho izindi judgement ukoze ziragaragaza ko aho kureba content wibasiye umuntu, institution (Kaminuza) ,imyandikire , kandi urangije muri byose ntacyo utwunguye. uti ibi nibyo kaminuza yigisha , ese ibyo uzi byose wabikuye muri kaminuza (isuzume umenye ko hari uburyo bwinshi bwo kwiga muri iki gihe burimo nubu bwo kwandika no gusoma ibitekerezo byababndi ), uti kuvuga amateka ukajya mu kinyejana cya 20, sobanura impmvu adakwiye kujyayo twumve kuko nkurikije inkuru ye yagiye inyuma kugirango yerekane ko ibyo tubona biba byabaye no kuva kera , uti imyubakire y’iyinyandiko ? hanyuma se uratwunganiye ngo natwe tumenye uko inyandiko iba iteye cyangwa byibura nizereko muri email ye wamwoherereje uburyo wita bwiza yayinoza kugirango yaongere ayisuzume, uti ibyo utubwiye wabonye aribyo byingenzi? kuri we ningenzi no kubandi basomyi twabonye ari ingenzi kuko nkiriya reference y’igitabo yatanze ubaye waragisomye nkeka ko uba utanditse ibyo wanditse ariko nkatwe tutari tukizi ubu tugiye kugishska tugisome, uti buriya muri Bibliotheque ya Kaminuza harimo ibitabo bingahe (iki cyo kirababaje ) niko se ubu uri kuri uru rubuga utazi ko kuri internet ushobora kwiyandikisha muri Library (bibliotheque zo ku isi aho ushaka ) kuburyo ubona ibitabo cyangwa ukabigura online , ese mu Rwanda hari Bibliotheque imwe gusa (muri za embassy haribibliotheque , Kacyir nahandi …). Muvandimwe ibi mbikubwiye atari uku kwibasira nagirango mbe specific kuko nibi nkubwiye nabandi byabafasha gufunguka tukajya tureba ikintu umuntu akoze mu buryo buri positive ninyunganizi dutanze tukazitanga tudasesereje uba yafasha umwanya we akaduhugura, wowe niba ibyo yavuze ubizi hari abandi benshi nanjye ndimo bigiyemo byinshi . Dukomeze twungurane ibitekerezo mu bwubahane kandi tumenye ko debate kuri social media nahandi duhurira nabandi dukwiriye kwitoza gutanga ibitekerezo byunganira ,bivuguruza , byemeza kuri content aho kujya kumuntu , institution ahubwo kuri content, cyangwa se aho ugize ikibazo ukabaza njye ndashimira numumwanditsi ko yashyizeho email ye ko byisnhi ushobora kubimuha wenda utanabinyujije hano naho kumwita umwana , umusore, yibeshye nibindi byinshi nkaho umuzi neza kandi yivuze uwo ariwe ibyo byerekana uburyo uba uashaka kumuhindura ikindi kintu. Murakoze

  • Wa mwana we uribeshya cyane. Icyo wifuza ko twigira ku mateka ni iki se? Ushobora kuba mu mutwe wawe utekereza ko ari ugukora neza cyangwa gushyira ibintu mu buryo ibibi tukabireka!! Uriyibagiza ko abenshi mu bandika amateka asakuza cyane ari abakora ibibi wangu. N’ikimenyimenyi nuko nawe ujya gukora inshamake y’ayo mateka wahisemo,ugahitamo ay’intambara aho kuduhitiramo ay’abavumbuye ibintu byinshi binyuranye byateje isi imbere, kuva ku ndege kugeza kuri Internet n’ibindi byinshi birimo hagati aho warondora ubuzima bwawe bukarangira utarabirangiza. Ushaka gukora neza abakoze ibyiza abigiraho, n’ushaka gukora nabi akareba ibyo inkozi z’ibibi zabamubanjirije zakoze akabishyira mu bikorwa akanabinonsora akazisumbya ubugome. Ariko mu gihe icyiza kidasakuza nk’uko nabivuze, ikibi cyo gihora kivuza induru. Kandi nicyo kiranga ba Mpatsibihugu bayoboye isi, nicyo kiranga abanyagitugu bakandagira abaturage bayoboye, nicyo kiranga ibisambo binyunyuza imitsi y’abiyuha akuya, n’abandi banyangeso mbi zose. Wowe ni nk’aho watubwiye uti: abasambanyi ntacyo bigira ku masugi n’imanzi. Yego nyine. Bigira ku bandi basambanyi. Cyangwa uti: abicanyi ntacyo bigira ku banyamahoro. Yego nyine, amasomo abashishikaje ni ava ku bandi bicanyi. Ngiyo isi dutuye!

  • Buri gice cy’amateka y’isi kibamo ababi n’abeza. Ariko kubera ko gusenya byoroshye cyane ugereranyije no kubaka, ntibitangaje kuba buri gihe abafata icyemezo cyo gusenya ibyo abandi bubaka bandika amateka kurusha abo bubatsi. Ariko iyaba abakora nabi bari bo benshi kurusha abakora neza, isi iba yararimbutse cyera. Tujye tumenya kurangamira icyiza,ikibi tugitere umugongo, kuko icyo umuntu arangamiye ageza aho akisanisha nacyo mu myumvire ye (être hypnotisez par le mal quand nous choisissons de le contempler).

    • @Machieval wakoze gutanga igitekerezo cyawe kuko nicyo freedom of speech bivuga kandi , ariko nakugira inama nujya gutanga igitekerezo jya ureba content aho kwibasira uyanditse, we atanze igitekerezo cyuko abona isi cyangwa ibibera ku isi kandi arabidusangiza igikorwa gikorwa nabake kandi gutanga ibitekerezo nkuko yagitanze biratwigisha kandi nawe bikamugirira akamaro kuko twese iyo tuganira nibwo tumenya ko turi abantu kandi nibwo tumenya abo turi bo. Sinshaka kugwa mu mutego ariko bibaye ngombwa kuri wowe kuko njya mbona ukunda gutanga ibitekerezo ako kantu kavuyemo twarushaho kuganira mubwubahane sinshaka kuguha formule kuko ufite ubushobozi bwo kwitekerereza ariko reka wenda mvuge utuntu tubiri gusa, guterura uti wa mwana we uribeshya (niki kikubwira ko ari umwana ? kuko avuze ko ari umunyeshuri ?kandi niyo byaba ari byo Kaminuza nta mwana ubayo ), ikindi uti uribeshya (ntabwo yibeshya ibyo yavuze nibimwe mubyabaye kandi muburyo abona isi nibyo yadusangije) nkuko nawe utanze ikindi gitekerezo kiza cyuko hari ibyiza byinshi nka internet nibindi nawe ubwo werekanyae isi ukurikije ubu ryo uyumva kandi byombi bifite akamaro , ariko ntibivuze ko version ye yibeshya hoya yafashe igice kimwe nawe ahubwo iyo ufata ikindi ukazakidusangiza bityo tugakomeza kwihugura. Njye niba muri abantu mushaka ko twiga aho kujya ku muntu nasomye biriya bitabo navuze byamfashije kumva isi muri rusange kandi birimo ibijyanye nibibazo twibajijije hano byinshi byadufasha gutera intambwe mu mitekerereze yuko tubona isi .
      Murakoze

  • Intambara,intambara,always intambara.Kuki abantu bicana?kuki barwana?Twebwe abantu,twaremwe mu ishusho y’imana.Kuki twicana,kuki twiga kurwana?It is beyond common sense.
    Mu byukuri,ntabwo abantu twari dukwiye gukora intwaro.Kubera ko ntabwo arizo kwica inyamaswa,ahubwo nizo kwica abantu imana yaremye.Kurwana,biri mu bintu imana ibuza abakristu nyakuri.Ibasaba gukundana.Abantu bose banga kumvira imana,hari umuti izabavugutira.It is a matter of time.

  • Kutigira ku mateka y’ibintu bibi byahise,biteza akaga isi.Urugero,nubwo abantu babonye ukuntu Intambara ya 2 y’isi yahitanye miliyoni zirenga 60 z’abantu,hagasenyuka ibintu bitabarika,ubukungu bukajya hasi cyane,ibihugu bikomeye birimo gutegura intambara ya 3 y’isi,aho noneho bazarwanisha atomic bombs tugashira.This world is sick.Ikibabaje nuko UN yananiwe kuzana umuti,nyamara ijyaho muli 1945,yali ifite Mission yo kuzana amahoro ku isi.

  • Done well

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