Inzu z’ibitabo umunani za kera kurusha izindi – UMUSEKE

Inzu z’ibitabo umunani za kera kurusha izindi

Mbere y’uko ibitabo tuzi bibaho, abahanga cyangwa abandi bantu bashaka kubika ibitekerezo byabo bandikaga ku mpu no ku ibumba bakaritwika ibyanditseho ntibizaveho na rimwe. Babibikaga ahantu hamwe bigakora inzu z’ibitabo zifatwa nk’iza kera kurusha izindi mu Isi.

Inzu y'Ibitabo ya Pergamum

Inzu y’Ibitabo ya Pergamum

1.Inzu y’ibitabo ya Ashurbanipal umwami wa Ashuri (Assyria)

Iyi nzu y’ibitabo yabayeho mu kinyejana cya 7  mbere ya Yesu. Yashyirwagamo ibibumbano byose abahanga n’ingabo za Ashurbanipal zabashaga gukusanya kugira ngo bijye bishimisha umwami kandi byerekane ko afite imitungo y’amoko atandukanye.

Iriya nzu y’ibitabo yari iherereye mu mujyi wa Nineveh muri Assyria ya kera ubu ni umujyi wa Mosul muri Iraq y’iki gihe. Yari irimo ibibumbano byanditseho inyandiko z’udusumari (cuneiform) zigera ku bihumbi 30 zipanze hakurikijwe ingingo zandikagaho.

Inyinshi zari izavugaga ku mateka, ibyerekeye idini, n’inyandiko z’intiti mu mashami atandukanye. Harimo kandi inyandiko z’ubuvanganzo nk’izwi cyane ivuga inkuru y’impimbano abahanga bita ‘Epic of Gilgamesh’ ubu imaze imyaka ibihumbi bine (4000).

Umwami w’abami Ashurbanipal yakusanyije inyandiko cyane cyane azinyaze aho yagabaga ibitero nko muri Babuloni.

Mu Kinyejana cya 19 nibwo abashakashatsi mu bitabye mu matongo bavumbuye biriya bibumbano baba barasakiwe, babitunda babijyana ku bihunika mu Ngoro Ndangamurage y’Abongereza (British Museum) iri i London.

Kubera ukuntu Ashurbanipal yakundaga ibitabo kandi akaba yari azi ko yabyibye yatanze umuburo ko uzafatwa yiba kimwe mu bibumbano yari yaribye muri Babuloni, imana zari bumuvume, akazasiga inkuru imusozi.

2.Inzu y’ibitabo ya Alexandria

Nyuma gato y’urupfu rwa Alexandre le Grand muri 323 BC (Mbere ya Yezu/Yesu), igice kinini mu cyo yari yarigaruriye cyahise gifatwa n’umwe mu ba Jenerali be witwaga Ptolemy I Soter, uyu yahise agira igitekerezo cyo gushinga ihuriro ry’intiti zose zo mu gace yayoboraga, arishyira muri Alexandria.

Aha yahashyize inzu y’ibitabo aho intiti zose zo mu Isi y’icyo gihe zahuriraga zikiga. Aha kandi niho intiti 70 zahinduye Bibiliya ya mbere ziyivana mu Kigereki ziyishyira mu Giheburayo, iyi ni yo intiti zise Septante.

Nubwo umubare w’inyandiko nyakuri zari muri iriya nzu utagaragara neza, ariko bivugwa ko harimo nibura inyandiko ibihumbi 500 zikozwe mu mfunzo (papysrus).

Iyo iriya nzu itabaho inyandiko z’umwimerere z’intiti nka Archimedes, Euclide, Strabo, Aristote n’abandi ziba zaratikiye burundu.

Iyi nzu yaje gutwikwa ariko hari inyandiko zarokotse inkongi, bamwe bavugwa ko yatwitswe na Jules Ceasar muri 48 B.C ubwo yarwanaga na Ptolemy XIII.

Abanyamateka bemeza ko iriya nzu yakomeje kubaho nyuma yaho ariko iza kwangizwa bigaragara n’umwami w’Abaroma witwa Aurelien muri 270 AD (Mu gihe cya Yesu).

3.Inzu y’ibitabo ya Pergamum

Yubatswe mu Kinyejana cya Gatatu mu gihe cyacu n’abantu bo mu muryango wa Attalid. Yari iherereye mu gihugu cy’ubu cya Turukiya (Turkey). Nyuma gato y’uko yuzuye yahise ishyirwamo imizingo y’impu ibihumbi 200.

Imizingo yari ibitswe mu cyumba cyeguriwe Imana y’ubwenge yitwaga Athena. Iyi nzu y’ibitabo yari ifite ibyumba bine, bitatu bya mbere birimo inyandiko naho icya kane ari icyumba cy’inama n’impaka mu ntiti.

Umwanditsi w’Umuroma witwa Pline le Grand yigeze kwandika ko iyi nzu y’ibitabo ari yo yahanganaga n’iya Alexandria.

4.Inzu y’ibitabo ya Papyri

Nubwo yari mu nzu nini zariho kera ariko abahanga bemeza ko  yo yaje guhura n’akaga gakomeye kuko na n’ubu ibirimo bigora abahanga kubisoma. Ahagana muri 79 A.D ikirunga cyitwa Mount Vesuvius cyararutse kirengera inyandiko zose ubu abahanga bari kugerageza gusoma ibyari bikubiye mu nyandiko zari muri iriya nzu.

Abahanga bakoresha ubuhanga bita multi-spectral imaging to x-rays. Yari yubatswe mu mujyi w’ubwami bwa Roma witwaga Herculaneum kandi yarimo imizingo 1 800 ikaba yarubatswe na nyirarume wa Julius Ceasar witwaga Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus.

Inyandiko zimaze gusomwa zirekana ko zari iz’umuhanga muri Philosophie witwaga Philodemus wari umunyeshuri wa Epicure .

5.Inzu y’ibitabo ya Trajan

Ahagana mu mwaka wa 112 A.D Umwami w’abami wa Roma witwaga Trajan yujuje inzu y’akataraboneka rwagati mu mujyi wa Roma. Muri iyi nzu harimo ibyumba bitandukanye n’inzu y’ibitabo y’ibwami.

Iyi nzu yarimo ibyumba bibiri: ikirimo ibitabo by’Ikilatini n’iby’Ikigereki. Imbere y’inzu y’ibitabo by’Ikilatini hari hashinze ikibumbano cya Trajan kerekana ubuhangange bwe ku rugamba.

Abanyamateka ntibazi neza igihe ibi byumba byombi byarekereye aho kubaho ariko bemeza ko zimwe mu nyandiko zarimo zakomeje kwifashishwa kugeza mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya kane AD.

6.Inzu y’ibitabo ya Celsus

Mu gihe Roma yategekwaga n’Abaromani, mu murwa mukuru wayo hari inzu z’ibitabo zirenga 12. Ahagana mu mwaka 120 A.D umwana w’umwami w’Abaroma witwa Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus yubakiye Se inzu y’ibitabo mu mujyi wa Epheso (ubu ni muri Turukiya).

Iyi nzu y’ibitabo iracyariho kandi ngo mu gihe gito cyakurikiye iyubakwa ryayo harimo imizingo irenga ibihumbi 12. Yiswe Inzu y’ibitabo ya Celsus kubera ko ariho yashyinguwe mu nzu imbere.

7.Inzu y’ibitabo y’ibwami muri Constantinople

Ubwami bw’Abagereki bw’Iburengerazuba bwaje gusenyuka bituma ibitekerezo by’intiti byimukira mu bwami bwa Byzantin mu murwa mukuru Constantinople.

Umwami w’abami Constantin Mukuru ni we wayishinze ahagana mu Kinyejana cya kane AD. Mu kinyejana cya Gatanu cyakurikiyeho nibwo iriya nzu y’ibitabo yakusanyirijwemo inyandiko nyinshi iza kugira izigera ku bihumbi.

Mu buryo bubabaje, iyi nzu yaje kwangirika kubera  gushya ntisanwe. Byaje kuyirangirana ahagana muri 120 ubwo Abanyamisaraba (Croisades) basenyaga umujyi wa Constantinople.

8.Inzu y’ibitabo yiswe iy’ubwenge (The House of Wisdom)

Baghdad muri Iraq higeze kuba umujyi mpuzamahanga w’intiti. Muri uyu mujyi hari inzu y’ibitabo abahanga bise Inzu y’ibitabo yiswe iy’ubwenge, ikaba yarubatswe n’abantu bitwaga Abbasids ikaba yari irimo ibitabo byanditswe mu GiPeresi, Igihinde n’Ikigereki.

Inyandiko nyinshi zarimo ubumenyi mu by’inyenyeri, imibare, ubugenge, ubuvuzi na Philosophie. Umuhanga  mu mibare witwa al-Khawarizmi ni umwe mu bari bagafite ibitabo bya algebra. Undi muhanga uzwi cyane ni Al- Kindi ufatwa nk’umwe mu ba Philosophe ukomeye wabayeho mu Isi y’Abarabu.

Inzu y'ibitabo ya Trajan

Inzu y’ibitabo ya Trajan

History.com

Jean Pierre NIZEYIMANA
UMUSEKE.RW

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