Imizingo yiswe iyo ‘ku Nyanja y’Urupfu’ ngo harimo n’Ubuhanuzi bwa Nehemiya – UMUSEKE

Imizingo yiswe iyo ‘ku Nyanja y’Urupfu’ ngo harimo n’Ubuhanuzi bwa Nehemiya

Hashize imyaka hafi 70 abashumba b’Abarabu bavumbuye ikintu gifatwa nk’igikomeye kurusha ibindi byavumbuwe mu Kinyejana cya 20 nyuma ya Yesu.

Zimwe mu nyandiko zatoraguwe

Zimwe mu nyandiko zatoraguwe

Ubwo bari baragiye imikumbi yabo hafi y’ahitwa Qumran mu Majyaruguru y’Uburasirazuba bw’Inyanja y’Urupfu (Dead Sea), abashumba bateye ibuye mu buvumo bumva ryikubise hejuru y’ibibindi bajya kureba basanga harimo inyandiko nyinshi zanditse ku mpu.

Baje kuzigurisha n’abacuruzi b’ibintu bya kera, aba na bo baza kubiha intiti zo muri Israel no muri Jordanie ngo bige barebe ibyanditemo.

Mu gusuzuma neza, intiti zasanze igice kinini cy’izi nyandiko ari izo mu myaka irenga ibihumbi  mbere y’igihe cyacu ndetse na nyuma gato y’ikinyejana cya mbere ya Yesu.

Inyandiko ziri mu mizingo irenga 900 zirimo izo abahanga bavuga ko ari ibitabo by’umwimerere bya Bibiliya byanditswe n’Abahanuzi nka Yesaya, Nehemiya n’abandi.

Harimo n’izindi nyandiko zisobanura imibereho y’Abayahudi muri kiriya gihe n’izindi zerekana ukuntu Abayahudi babanaga n’abandi bo mu bwami bwari buturanye na Israel.

Nyuma yo kuvumbura iriya mizingo, abahanga mu ndimi za kera n’iz’ubu, abanyamateka n’abahanga mu byataburuwe mu matongo babanje kugira ibanga ibikubiyemo, bakaba barashakaga kwirinda gukurura umwuka mubi washoboraga kuvuka hagati ya Kiliziya Gatolika n’Abayahudi b’abahezanguni .

Ku italiki ya 11, Ukwakira uyu mwaka, hasohotse ibitabo bibiri bikubiyemo ibyo abahanga bavumbuye muri ya mizingo nyuma y’imyaka irenga mirongo itatu barabigize ubwiru.

Kubera iyi mpamvu ariko, umusomyi yakwibaza niba ibikubiye muri biriya bitabo ari ibyo kwizerwa, kuko kuba hashize imyaka ingana gutya bitaratangazwa bishoboka ko hari ibyahinduwe, ibyongerewemo n’ibyakuwemo kubera impamvu zasobanurwa n’intiti zabyanditse.

Iriya mizingo ubundi yavumbuwe kandi ikusanywa hagati ya 1947 na 1956, ni ukuvuga umwaka umwe mbere y’uko Israel ibona ubwigenge ndetse no mu gihe yarwanaga n’ibihugu by’Abarabu bimwe bitifuzaga ko yaba Leta.

Uyu mwuka w’intambara rero ushobora kuba waragize ingaruka runaka ku bushakashatsi bw’izi ntiti bikaba ari na kimwe mu byatumye zitinda gusohora ibyo zasanze muri iriya mizingo.

Ibitabo byasohotse kuri iyo mizingo byerekena ko ibiyikubiyemo byanditswe guhera mu Kinyejana cya Gatatu Mbere y’Igihe cyacu kugeza mu Kinyejana cya Mbere nyuma ya Yesu, aha hari mbere gato y’uko Abaroma basenya Urusengero rw’i Yeruzalemu mu mwaka wa 70 rusenywe n’ingabo zari ziyobowe na Titus.

Intiti zifashishije ibikubiye muri iriya mizingo zabashije kumenya no kwandika amateka ya Palestina ya kera ni ukuvuga kugeza nibura mu Kinyejana cya kane mbere y’igihe cyacu.

Intiti kandi zabashije kumenya ko igice cya Bibiliya y’Umwimerere yo mu Giheburayo yanditswe guhera mu mwaka wa 70 mu Gihe cyacu (Anno Domino).

Ubusanzwe Bibiliya y’umwimerere yanditswe mu rurimi rwa Arameyi, Igiheburayo n’Ikigereki.

Nta muntu kugeza ubu wakwihandagaza ngo yemeze mu buryo budasubirwaho abanditse cyangwa uwanditse iriya mizingo, ariko ngo inyandiko nyinshi zanditswe ‘n’agatsiko’ k’Abayahudi bitwa Essenes babaga mu gace ka Yudeya icyo gihe kakaba kari mu gace kayoborwaga n’Abaromani.

Birashoboka ko abahishe iriya mizingo mu buvumo bwo muri Qumran batinyaga ko yakwangirika bitewe n’imyivumbagatanyo y’Abayahudi batavugaga rumwe n’Abaroma mu myaka yabanjirije uwa 70 Anno Domino.

Kubera ko iriya mizingo yavumbuwe ahitwa Qumran haherereye mu gace ka West Bank aka gace kakaba karigaruriwe na Israel ikanyaze Jordan mu Ntambara y’Iminsi Itandatu yabaye muri 1967, byatumye bimwe mu bikubiye muri iriya mizingo cyane cyane iyari yarangiritse bitinda gutangazwa.

Ikindi cyateye gutinda kw’iyi mizingo ni uko buri gihugu (Israel na Jordania) byavugaga ko buri kimwe ari cyo nyiri iyo mizingo ifatwa nk’ubutunzi bukomeye.

Muri iki gihe hari kubakwa Inzu ndangamurage ya Bibiliya (Museum of the Bible) izubakwa muri Washington, D.C muri America ikaba izuzura mu mwaka utaha.

Umwe mu bantu bakusanya inyandiko z’agaciro witwa Green yahaye ubuyobozi mu itsinda ryubaka iriya nzu imwe mu mizingo yo ku Nyanja y’Urupfu, hanyuma aba na bo barayisesengura bandikamo igitabo cyiswe   “Dead Sea Scrolls Fragments in the Museum Collection.”

Muri iki gitabo hagaragaramo bimwe mu bikubiye mu gitabo cy’Umuhanuzi Nehemiya (Nehemiya2:13-16), iyi mirongo ikaba ivuga ku muntu wari ugarutse i Yeruzalemu nyuma gato y’uko isenywa n’Abanyababuloni mu mwaka wa 586 Mbere y’Igice Cyacu.

Amateka yerekana ko nyuma y’uko ubwami bw’Abaperesi busimbura ubw’Abanyababuloni, muri icyo gihe Abayahudi bari bemerewe kujya bajya i Yeruzalemu gusengerayo.

Muri uriya muzingo hakaba herekana ko Nehemia yasubiye i Yeruzalemu kwitegereza ukuntu Abanyababuloni bari bari bayisenye, nyuma y’aho akaza gutangiza umushinga wo kongera kuyisana.

Muri imwe mu nyandiko zo muri iriya mizingo hagaragaramo inyandiko zo mu bitabo cy’Abalewi ahavuga ko Imana yari yasezeranyije Abasiraheli ko izababa hafi nibakomeza Isezerano ryo kwizihiza Isabato no gukurikiza Amategeko 10 yayo.

Kugeza ubu bamwe mu ntiti bakemanga umwimerere wa ziriya nyandiko, bakibaza urwego umuntu yageraho yezera ko ibyanditswemo ari ukuri kuzuye.

Nubwo ari uko bimeze ariko, Ikigo cya Leta ya Israel kita ku nyandiko ndangamateka ya kiriya gihugu (Israel Antiquities Authority) kivuga ko mu buvumo bwa Qumran hakiri izindi nyandiko kandi ko abajura bashobora kuzazisahura niba Leta idakoze ibishoboka ko izirinde.

Abizera Bibiliya bemera ko ibyanditswemo byahumetswe n’Imana kandi bigira umumaro wo guhugura no gucyaha kugira ngo umuntu w’Imana abe yuzuye kandi afite ibikenewe byose kugira ngo akore imirimo myiza yose(2 Timoteyo 3:16).

www.history.com

Jean Pierre NIZEYIMANA
UMUSEKE.RW

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2 Comments

  1. C

    October 18, 2016 at 2:54 pm

    MBEGA BYIZAAAA

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  2. Ngayilibi

    October 18, 2016 at 2:54 pm

    ku iherezo ry'isi n'ibyari bihishwe bizagaragara

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