Ibintu 11 abantu bakoze by’ingirakamaro kurusha ibindi mu mateka y’isi – UMUSEKE

Ibintu 11 abantu bakoze by’ingirakamaro kurusha ibindi mu mateka y’isi

Nubwo bamwe bavuga ko kuvumbura umuriro wo kotsa inyama kota no gukanga inyamaswa ari cyo kintu cya mbere gikomeye abantu bavumbuye, abanyamateka bemeza ko hari ibindi bintu byavumbuwe bigira akamaro gakomeye cyane, bituma abantu bakamenya kwirinda indwara no kuzivura, bamenya amerekezo kugira ngo ntibayobe n’ibindi…

Uwavumbuye Compass afatwa nk'uwahinduye byinshi cyane ku isi

Uwavumbuye Compass afatwa nk’uwahinduye byinshi cyane ku isi

The History.com cyarobanuye ibintu 11 muntu yavumbuye byagize uruhare runini mu majyambere y’Isi kurusha ibindi.

1.Inyandiko zandikishijwe imashini(Printing Press)

Mbere y’uko Internet ibaho mu myaka 20 ishize, inyandiko zanditswe ku mpapuro zisanzwe nizo zakwirakwizaga amakuru hose ku Isi.

Johannes Gutemberg wavumbuye imashini yandika niwe ufatwa nk’umuntu  wakoze ikintu cyagiriye abantu benshi akamaro kurusha abandi ku Isi.

Iyi mashini yayivumbuye mu 1440 mu gace kitwa Mainz mu Budage. Icyo gihe imashini ye ngo yafashaga mu gucapa inyandiko zitari munsi ya 3,600.

Imashini ye yafashije intiti nyinshi gukwirakwira ibitekerezo ndetse na Bibiliya ibasha gucapwa mu ndimi nyinshi no gukwirakwizwa henshi ku Isi.

Iyo itaza kubaho ntabwo igihe cy’intiti z’i Burayi yitwa Icy’Umucyo(Siécle des Lumières) cyari kubaho kuko ibitekerezo byazo byanditswe mu bitabo hifashishijwe iriya mashini.

Biriya bitekerezo nibyo byateye impinduka mu butegetsi haba mu Bufaransa, u Bwongereza n’ahandi.

Abaporotesitanti batangijwe na Martin Luther nabo ntibari kubaho muri kiriya gihe iyo atabona uko yandika ibitekerezo bye bigakwirakwira henshi.

 

  1. Boussole cyangwa Compass

Aka kuma kerekana ibyerekezo kayoboye abantu benshi bashakaga kumenya aho berekeza. Abashakashatsi b’i Burayi n’Abarabu, n’Abashinwa nibo bayikoresheje cyane.

Gusa abanyamateka bemeza ko Abashinwa aribo bambere bayikoze kera cyane mbere y’abandi.

Kubera kariya kuma abantu babashije kugera mu duce dushya bahindura imibereho ya benshi binyuze mu ntambara cyangwa mu bundi buryo.

Kariya kuma kandi katumye u Burayi, Amerika na Aziya bitera imbere ndetse n’inganda zitangira gutyo.

  1. Amafaranga y’inoti.

Mbere y’inoti abantu bifashishaga ibikoroto bikoze mu mabuye y’agaciro babara agaciro k’ikintu runaka ugereranyije n’ikindi.

Hari n’abifashishaga amatungo (mu Rwanda bifashishaga inka), ibihingwa runaka, umunyu n’ibindi.

Aho abantu batangiriye gukoresha inoti byatumye babasha guha agaciro ibintu byose bitewe n’uko babishaka.

Mu kinyejana cya cyenda Abashinwa bakoreshaga inoti. Zageze mu Burayi mu ntangiriro z’Ikinyejana cya 17. Icyo gihe ibikoroto byari bimaze kugabanuka kandi biremera.

Ahagana mu mpera z’Ikinyejana cya 19 inoti zari zaramaze gukwirakwira hafi ku Isi hose.

Gukoresha inoti kandi nibyo byatabaye ubukungu bwa USA nyuma y’Intambara hagati y’Amajyaruguru n’Amajyepfo ku butegetsi bwa Abraham Lincoln.

Iyo zitabaho, ubu nta banki ziba ziriho nk’uko tuzizi.

  1. Icyuma(steel)

Ibyuma nibyo byabaye inkingi abahanga batangiriyeho bubaka imijyi minini kandi ifite imiturirwa nk’uko tuyibona muri iki gihe.

Gutunganya icyuma (ubucuzi) ni ikintu gikomeye cyane ba ‘ruvuzacyuma’ bavumburiye isi.

Mbere y’uko haduka ibyuma byo muri iki gihe abantu bo hambere bakoreshaga ibyuma bidakomeye kandi bigwa umugese vuba, bakabikoresha bahiga inyamaswa, bazibaga cyangwa bakora intwaro zo guhiga cyangwa kujyana ku rugamba.

Ibyuma bitagwa umugese kandi bikomeye (stainless steel) byatumye USA iba igihangange mu bwubatsi no mu gukora za moteri n’izindi mashini zikomeye.

5.Urumuri rukomoka ku mashanyarazi

Hari bamwe bashobora gutekereza ko urumuri rw’amashanyarazi ari ikintu kidafite akamaro kanini ariko baba bibeshya.

Byafashe abahanga nka Warren de la Rue, Joseph Wilson Swan na  Thomas Alva Edison bamaze igihe kirekire barukora byaranze.

Edison na Swan nibo babashije gukora urumuri rwamaze igihe kirekire rwaka aha hari muri1879 ishyira 1880.

Tekereza imijyi itagira amashanyarazi….Ibisambo, impanuka, igihombo cy’ubucuruzi n’ibindi biba bihaganje.

Thomas Edison mu 1929 afashe ku itara ry'amashanyarazi yari yarakoze aha yari yabihembewe

Thomas Edison mu 1929 afashe ku itara ry’amashanyarazi yari yarakoze aha yari yabihembewe

  1. Ifarasi niyo nyamaswa yagize uruhare mu mateka kurusha izindi

Nta uzi neza igihe muntu yamenyeye ko ifarashi ari inyamaswa yamufasha kugenda, ariko ababivumbuye bafatwa nk’abahanga kuko baturiye inka cyangwa indi nyamaswa ngo abe ariyo bagendaho.

Bivugwa ko hashize imyaka 5,500 abantu borora amafarasi. Izi nyamaswa zafashije ingabo kwigarurira ibihugu, zifasha mu bucuruzi kandi zituma abantu batembera ahantu kure cyane bamenyana n’abandi havuka imikoranire.

Aba cyera cyane ngo nibo bavumbuye ko ifarashi ari uburyo bwo gutwara abantu bihuse

Aba cyera cyane ngo nibo bavumbuye ko ifarashi ari uburyo bwo gutwara abantu bihuse

  1. Ibyuma bigabanya umuriro mu byuma by’amashanyarazi

Ibyinshi mu byuma bikoresha amashanyarazi bikenera ibyuma bigabanya umuriro kugira bidashya kandi byarabahenze.

Uhereye kuri mudasobwa, TVs, radio, telefoni n’ibindi byuma bihenze byose bikerera akuma kabirinda gushya.

Utu twuma bita transistors tuzakomeza kuba ingenzi muri iki gihe cy’ikoranabuhanga ritera imbere buri gihe.

  1. Ibyuma bitubura amashushu (magnifying lenses)

Ibi bikoresho byafashije abantu kureba ibintu biri kure yabo, byaba abanzi, za maneko, abashyitsi, inyamaswa n’ibindi.

Byatangiye gukoreshwa mu kinyajana cya 13 nyuma ya Yesu zikaba zari izo gufasha abantu batareba neza kureba kure.

Ibi byuma bitubura amashusho byafashije abahanga kureba utunyabuzima tutaboneshwa amaso nka za microbes, bacteries n’ibindi.

Nibyo byifashishijwe kandi mu gukora ibyuma bireba kure mu kirere bita telescopes n’ibireba utuntu duto cyane bita microscopes.

  1. Telegraph

Mbere y’uko za radio, telefoni na emails ziza, abantu bategeranye bahanaga ubutumwa bakoreshe telegraph. Iyi yatangijwe hagati y’ikinyejana cya 18 n’icya 19 n’uwitwa Samuel Morse.

Intsinga zari zarazengurukijwe hafi isi yose kugira ngo ubutumwa bujye bugera aho ubwohereje ashaka.

Iyi niyo yabaye intambwe ya mbere mu koroshya itumanaho ryakurikiyeho rimwe rikaba ridakoresha insinga.

Ishusho y'imashini ya telegraph yakoreshwaga mu kohereza ubutumwa

Ishusho y’imashini ya telegraph yakoreshwaga mu kohereza ubutumwa

  1. Imiti yica microbes

Iyi miti yabaye ikintu gikomeye mu gutuma abantu bahangana n’indwara zandura. Abahanga nka Louis Pasteur , Alexander Fleming wakoze ikinini cya Penicillin(1928) na Joseph Lister nibo bateje imbere ubushakashatsi muri uru rwego.

Iriya miti yafashije abasirikare babaga bakomerekeye ku rugamba kandi na n’ubu iracyabafasha mu buryo bugaragara.

Imiti nka penicillin, vancomycin, cephalosporin na streptomycin yagize uruhare runini mu gufasha abantu gukira indwara zari bubahitane.

Muri izi ndwara harimo nka malaria, igituntu, meningitis, influenza n’indwara zandurira mu mibonano mpuzabitsina idakingiye.

  1. Moteri z’ibinyabiziga (steam engine)

Inganda, imodoka, za moto n;indege ni bimwe mu bikoresho abantu bakenera ngo bakore akazi ka buri munsi.

Moteri z’ibi bikoresho nizo zituma bikora akazi kabyo, zikagirira ba nyirabyo akamaro.

Inganda zo mu Burayi zatangiye zikoresha za moteri zo muri buriya bwoko kandi na n’ubu niko bimeze.

Abahanga na James Watt na Thomas Savery nibo bateje imbere ubushakashatsi kuri iyi ngingo.

Jean Pierre NIZEYIMANA
UMUSEKE.RW

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1 Comment

  1. K

    November 6, 2016 at 9:59 pm

    Ni byiza cyane ariko mudushyirireho amafoto yabyo ahagije...

    Likes(0)Dislikes(0)

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