Amateka ya za pyramids zaranze ubuhangange bwa Misiri ya kera – UMUSEKE

Amateka ya za pyramids zaranze ubuhangange bwa Misiri ya kera

Ni zimwe mu nyubako za kera zikiriho kandi zubakanywe ubuhanga bwo ku rwego rwo hejuru. Uretse kuba ari nini mu bugari no mu burebure ngo zikoranye n’ikoranabuhanga mu myubakire (construction engineering) ryo ku rwego rwo hejuru. Pyramids zo mu Misiri zimaze imyaka ibihumbi bine ziriho kandi ziracyakomeye.

Pyramid nini ya Cheops

Pyramid nini ya Cheops

Nubwo hubatswe nyinshi, izizwi cyane kubera uburebure n’ubunini bwazo ni iz’ahitwa Giza.

Abanyamateka bemeza ko kubaka pyramids mu Misiri  ya kera byatangiye mu gihe abahanga bita Old Kingdom (Ubwami bwa Kera bwa Misiri) ndetse birakomeza kugeza mu mwaka wa 2 325 BC (Mbere ya Yesu).

Kwitegereza ukuntu ziriya nyubako zireshya n’uko zikoze bikwereka ukuntu Abami ba Misiri (Pharaons) bari ibihangange n’ukuntu bihaga ikuzo rikomeye cyane ndetse na nyuma y’urupfu rwabo bakazarihorana.

Uko umwami wa Misiri yafatwaga mu muryango w’Abanyamisiri

Ahagana hagati mu bwami bwa kera bwa Misiri, iki gihugu cyateye imbere mu bukungu, ubuhanga n’igisirikare, abaturage barakungahara cyane.

Umwami wa Misiri (Pharaoh) yafatwaga nk’umuhuza hagati y’abantu n’Imana z’Abanyamisiri.

Kubera iyi mpamvu byari mu nyungu za buri wese kwita ku mibereho myiza y’Umwami yaba ariho ndetse na nyuma y’urupfu rwe.

Iyo Umwami yapfaga (Mu Rwanda tuvuga gutanga) abaturage bemeraga ko yahindukaga Imana y’abapfuye ari yo Osiris, hanyuma uwimye ingoma agahinduka Imana bitaga Horus, abanyabugeni bashushanyaga nk’ikinyoni gishinzwe kurinda Imana y’izuba  bitaga Ra.

Ese wari uzi ko Pyramids zari ingoro bashyinguragamo ba Pharaoh? Kuba ziteye kuriya (zibwataraye hasi ariko zisongoye hejuru) ngo byarekanaga ko bashakaga ko roho y’umwami izazamuka ikajya mu ijuru guhura n’Imana y’izuba yitwa Ra.

Abanyamisiri bemeraga ko iyo umwami apfuye hari igice kimwe cya roho ye bita Ka cyagumaga mu mubiri we.

Mu rwego rwo kwita kuri iki gice Abanyamisiri bafataga umubiri w’umwami bakawumisha, bakawusiga ubujeni (mummification) kandi bakawukikiza ibintu byose umwami yakenera mu buzima harimo imiringa ya zahabu, ibyo kurya, intebe ndetse n’amaturo asanzwe agenewe umwami.

Pyramids zabaye ahandi abantu bazaga guhera umwami icyubahiro kuko bemeraga ko atapfuye ahubwo hari aho ari mu buryo runaka.

Hari abashobora gutangazwa no kumenya ko iyo umwami yapfaga hari abagaragu be, abagore, ingabo n’abandi bemeraga kumuherekeza kugira ngo bazakomeze kumwitaho mu bundi buzima.

Pyramids nto ni zo zabanje

Mu ntangiriro z’igihe Misiri yategekwaga n’Abami (2 950 B.C), imva z’abami zabaga zicukuwe mu mabuye manini, zikagira ishusho y’umwiburungushure bitaga mastabas.

Izi mva ngo ni zo zabanjirije iyubakwa rya za pyramids. Pyramid bivugwa ko ari iya kera ni iyo mu mwaka wa 2 630 B.C ikaba yarubatswe ahitwa Saqqara ku ngoma ya Djoser.

Nyuma bakomeje kubaka izindi pyramids zirushijeho kuba nini kandi ndende. Amateka avuga ko uwitwa Imhotep ari we watumye hubakwa za pyramids ku bwinshi kandi zifite ubunini n’uburebure bigaragara.

Bamwe bafata Imhotep nk’umwe mu bahanga Misiri ya kera yagize haba mu bwubatsi, mu buvuzi no mu kwandika. Nyuma y’urupfu rwe abaganga bamugize Imana yabo.

Mu gihe cy’ubutegetsi bwa Djoser abubatsi batangiye kubaka pyramid zigaragara ku buryo hari imwe yari ifite metero 62 z’uburebure bamwubakiye. Yari ifite n’ubusitani bwo kuzajya atemberamo akishimira ‘ubuzima nyuma y’urupfu’.

Nyuma y’urupfu rwa Djoser, kubakira abami za Pyramid byabaye akamenyero uko imyaka yagiye ikurikira.

Uko Pyramid Nini ya Giza yari iteye

Iyi pyramid iherereye mu nkengero y’umurwa mukuru wa Misiri, Cairo. Ni mu gace kerekeye ku ruzi rwa Nili.

UNESCO yayigize kimwe mu bintu birindwi bitandaje byakozwe n’abantu mu mateka. Yubatswe n’Umwami Cheops uyu akaba yarategetse imyaka 23 (2589-2566 B.C). Ni ibintu bike bizwi ku butegetsi bwe uretse iyi pyramid yamwitiriwe.

Inkuta ziriya nyubako zireshya na metero 230 z’uburebure zikagira ubugari bwa metero 147, ibi bikayigira iya mbere ingana kuriya ku Isi.

Ku ruhande rwayo hari hubatswe izindi ebyiri z’abagore be ndetse ngo ku ruhande abahanga bahasanze imva irimo ubusa ya Nyina witwaga Hetepheres.

Iruhande rwa Pyramid ya Cheops hari izindi ‘mastabas’ aho abagaragu n’ingabo ze bagombaga kuba kugira ngo bazakomeze kumufasha mu bundi buzima.

Imbere ya pyramid ya Cheops hari igishushanyo kinini cyane cy’umuntu ufite ishusho y’intare, yari ashinzwe kurinda ibwami.

Kiriya gishushanyo ngo ni cyo cyari kinini mu isi ya kera kandi n’ubu abahanga bakita The Great Sphinx.

Abahanga barabaze basanga pyramid ya Cheops yarubatswe n’amabuye miliyoni 2.3, buri rimwe rifite toni 2.5. Abakozi ngo bajyaga mu butayu gushakayo ariya mabuye bakayikorera bakayageza aho bagombaga kubaka.

Umunyamateka w’Umugereki Herodote yemeza ko yubatswe n’abantu ibihumbi 100 mu gihe cy’imyaka 20, ariko abashakashatsi mu byataburuwe mu matongo (archeologists) bemeza ko byasabye abakozi ibihumbi 20 gusa.

Nubwo hari ibitabo bimwe bivugwa ko iriya pyramid yubatswe n’abacakara cyangwa abandi Misiri yabaga yarafashe bunyago mu ntambara, ibyataburuwe mu matongo byerekana ko abahinzi bo mu gishanga cya Nili ari bo bayubatse kugira ngo bahembwe icyo kurya kuko ibihingwa byabo byari byararengewe n’amazi y’umwuzure wa Nile muri biriya bihe.

Ku butegetsi bwa Unas (2375-2345 B.C) nibwo kubaka za pyramids byatangiye guta agaciro buhoro buhoro.

Umwami Pepy II (2278-2184 B.C) we byakomeje kugabanuka cyane kugeza ubwo bitaye agaciro mu buryo bugaragara.

Uyu mwami yaje ku butegetsi akiri muto ariko yategetse imyaka 94. Nyuma y’urupfu rwe ubwami bwa Misiri bwahuye n’ibibazo bugenda busenyuka gahoro gahoro.

Nubwo  abantu batakwihandagaza ngo bubake pyramid nk’iya Giza, ababarirwa muri za miliyoni bajya kuyisura buri mwaka, bakirebera ubuhangange bw’Abanyamisiri ba kera cyane mbere ya Yesu Kristu.

History.com

Jean Pierre NIZEYIMANA
UMUSEKE.RW

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5 Comments

  1. Ben

    November 30, 2016 at 8:54 pm

    Biravugwa ko aba aliens aribo bubatse ziriya pyramids ngo kuko hari nibishushanyo byabo bishushanyije ku mpome mw'imbere ya za pyramids ni naho ngo byamenyekanye bwa mbere ko ibyo bi nyabuzima bibaho ngo kuko biragoye kwiyumvisha ko abantu aribo bazubatse bitewe nubuhanga zubakanye,ngo aliens bafite ubuhanga burenze ubwabantu.Nibyo numvise ariko simbyemeza.

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  2. Tuza sem

    November 30, 2016 at 10:15 pm

    Ni ibyo wumvise nyine! Ntukishinge amabwirr! Ubu se zubakanywe ubuhanga kurusha gukora Mudasobwa, indege, icyogajuru, sous-marin, gratte a ciel, n'ibindi???!!! Muntu aho ava akagera afite ubwenge, gusa uretse Abanyamisiri, abandi Banyafurika wagira ngo ubwenge bwacu bwarahumye! Ntitugitekereza, ni ugutegereza Abazungu bakadutekerereza!! Duhinduke, dushyire ubwenge ku gihe, dukoreshe neurones dore ko Muntu agira izirenze Trillards, ariko inyinshi twe zirasinziriye!!! Tuzikanure!!

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  3. k c

    December 1, 2016 at 10:28 am

    Sha ibyo muvuze nukuri,ibyacu nimempuke ndamuke,cg kwicana gusa.
    ntamutegetsi ujya kubuperesida ashaka kugirira neza igihugu ejo hazaza,ahubwo nukuzuza ibifu,nokurya ibyarubanda babicishije mumisoro nibigo bashinga Ngo,barasha rubanda.ubwo twe nukujya twirebera amahanga gusa.

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  4. Isaïe

    December 1, 2016 at 11:55 am

    Nagize amahirwe yo gusura no kwinjira muri iriya pyramid ariko uko yubatse biratangaje pe! Ntibyumvikana ukuntu amabuye angana kuriya bayazamuraga.

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  5. ndayisenga

    December 2, 2016 at 5:57 am

    ko mutanditse ko abanyamisiri nab'pharaohs bari abirabura? iyo ubonye ibishushanyo biba muri ziriya pyiramid ubona mo ibishushanyo by'abirabura.

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